Calibrator¶
- class rascal.calibrator.HoughTransform[source]¶
This handles the hough transform operations on the pixel-wavelength space.
- add_hough_points(hp)[source]¶
Extending the Hough pairs with an externally supplied HoughTransform object. This can be useful if the arc lines are very concentrated in some wavelength ranges while nothing in available in another part.
- Parameters
hp (numpy.ndarray with 2 columns or HoughTransform object) – An externally supplied HoughTransform object that contains hough_points.
- bin_hough_points(xbins, ybins)[source]¶
Bin up data by using a 2D histogram method.
- Parameters
xbins (int) – The number of bins in the pixel direction.
ybins (int) – The number of bins in the wavelength direction.
- generate_hough_points(x, y, num_slopes)[source]¶
Calculate the Hough transform for a set of input points and returns the 2D Hough hough_points matrix.
- Parameters
x (1D numpy array) – The x-axis represents slope.
y (1D numpy array) – The y-axis represents intercept. Vertical lines (infinite gradient) are not accommodated.
num_slopes (int) – The number of slopes to be generated.
- load(filename='hough_transform', filetype='npy')[source]¶
Store the binned Hough space and/or the raw Hough pairs.
- Parameters
filename (str (default: 'hough_transform')) – The filename of the output, not used if to_disk is False. It will be appended with the content type.
filetype (str (default: 'npy')) – The file type of the saved hough transform. Choose from ‘npy’ and ‘json’.
- save(filename='hough_transform', fileformat='npy', delimiter='+', to_disk=True)[source]¶
Store the binned Hough space and/or the raw Hough pairs.
- Parameters
filename (str) – The filename of the output, not used if to_disk is False. It will be appended with the content type.
format (str (default: 'npy')) – Choose from ‘npy’ and json’
delimiter (str (default: '+')) – Delimiter for format and content types
to_disk (boolean) – Set to True to save to disk, else return a numpy array object
- Returns
hp_hough_points – only return if to_disk is False.
- Return type
numpy.ndarray
- set_constraints(min_slope, max_slope, min_intercept, max_intercept)[source]¶
Define the minimum and maximum of the intercepts (wavelength) and gradients (wavelength/pixel) that Hough pairs will be generated.
- Parameters
min_slope (int or float) – Minimum gradient for wavelength/pixel
max_slope (int or float) – Maximum gradient for wavelength/pixel
min_intercept (int/float) – Minimum interception point of the Hough line
max_intercept (int/float) – Maximum interception point of the Hough line
- class rascal.calibrator.Calibrator(peaks, spectrum=None)[source]¶
Initialise the calibrator object.
- Parameters
peaks (list) – List of identified arc line pixel values.
spectrum (list) – The spectral intensity as a function of pixel.
- add_atlas(elements, min_atlas_wavelength=None, max_atlas_wavelength=None, min_intensity=10.0, min_distance=10.0, candidate_tolerance=10.0, constrain_poly=False, vacuum=False, pressure=101325.0, temperature=273.15, relative_humidity=0.0)[source]¶
Adds an atlas of arc lines to the calibrator, given an element.
Arc lines are taken from a general list of NIST lines and can be filtered using the minimum relative intensity (note this may not be accurate due to instrumental effects such as detector response, dichroics, etc) and minimum line separation.
Lines are filtered first by relative intensity, then by separation. This is to improve robustness in the case where there is a strong line very close to a weak line (which is within the separation limit).
The vacuum to air wavelength conversion is deafult to False because observatories usually provide the line lists in the respective air wavelength, as the corrections from temperature and humidity are small. See https://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Documentation.asp
- Parameters
elements (string or list of strings) – Chemical symbol, case insensitive
min_atlas_wavelength (float (default: None)) – Minimum wavelength of the arc lines.
max_atlas_wavelength (float (default: None)) – Maximum wavelength of the arc lines.
min_intensity (float (default: None)) – Minimum intensity of the arc lines. Refer to NIST for the intensity.
min_distance (float (default: None)) – Minimum separation between neighbouring arc lines.
candidate_tolerance (float (default: 10)) – toleranceold (Angstroms) for considering a point to be an inlier during candidate peak/line selection. This should be reasonable small as we want to search for candidate points which are locally linear.
constrain_poly (boolean) – Apply a polygonal constraint on possible peak/atlas pairs
vacuum (boolean) – Set to True if the light path from the arc lamb to the detector plane is entirely in vacuum.
pressure (float) – Pressure when the observation took place, in Pascal. If it is not known, assume 10% decrement per 1000 meter altitude
temperature (float) – Temperature when the observation took place, in Kelvin.
relative_humidity (float) – In percentage.
- add_user_atlas(elements, wavelengths, intensities=None, candidate_tolerance=10.0, constrain_poly=False, vacuum=False, pressure=101325.0, temperature=273.15, relative_humidity=0.0)[source]¶
Add a single or list of arc lines. Each arc line should have an element label associated with it. It is recommended that you use a standard periodic table abbreviation (e.g. ‘Hg’), but it makes no difference to the fitting process.
The vacuum to air wavelength conversion is deafult to False because observatories usually provide the line lists in the respective air wavelength, as the corrections from temperature and humidity are small. See https://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Documentation.asp
- Parameters
elements (list/str) – Elements (required). Preferably a standard (i.e. periodic table) name for convenience with built-in atlases
wavelengths (list/float) – Wavelengths to add (Angstrom)
intensities (list/float) – Relative line intensities (NIST value)
candidate_tolerance (float (default: 15)) – toleranceold (Angstroms) for considering a point to be an inlier during candidate peak/line selection. This should be reasonable small as we want to search for candidate points which are locally linear.
constrain_poly (boolean) – Apply a polygonal constraint on possible peak/atlas pairs
vacuum (boolean) – Set to true to convert the input wavelength to air-wavelengths based on the given pressure, temperature and humidity.
pressure (float) – Pressure when the observation took place, in Pascal. If it is not known, assume 10% decrement per 1000 meter altitude
temperature (float) – Temperature when the observation took place, in Kelvin.
relative_humidity (float) – In percentage.
- fit(max_tries=500, fit_deg=4, fit_coeff=None, fit_tolerance=10.0, fit_type='poly', candidate_tolerance=10.0, brute_force=False, progress=True)[source]¶
Solve for the wavelength calibration polynomial by getting the most likely solution with RANSAC.
- Parameters
max_tries (int (default: 5000)) – Maximum number of iteration.
fit_deg (int (default: 4)) – The degree of the polynomial to be fitted.
fit_coeff (list (default: None)) – Set the baseline of the least square fit. If no fits outform this set of polynomial coefficients, this will be used as the best fit.
fit_tolerance (float (default: 10)) – Sets a tolerance on whether a fit found by RANSAC is considered acceptable
fit_type (string (default: 'poly')) – One of ‘poly’, ‘legendre’ or ‘chebyshev’
brute_force (boolean (default: False)) – Set to True to try all possible combination in the given parameter space
progress (boolean (default: True)) – True to show progress with tdqm. It is overrid if tdqm cannot be imported.
- Returns
fit_coeff (list) – List of best fit polynomial fit_coefficient.
rms (float) – RMS
residual (float) – Residual from the best fit
peak_utilisation (float) – Fraction of detected peaks used for calibration (if there are more peaks than the number of atlas lines, the fraction of atlas lines is returned instead) [0-1].
- match_peaks(fit_coeff, n_delta=None, refine=True, tolerance=10.0, method='Nelder-Mead', convergence=1e-06, min_frac=0.5, robust_refit=True, fit_deg=None)[source]¶
EXPERIMENTAL
Refine the polynomial fit fit_coefficients. Recommended to use in it multiple calls to first refine the lowest order and gradually increase the order of fit_coefficients to be included for refinement. This is be achieved by providing delta in the length matching the number of the lowest degrees to be refined.
Set refine to True to improve on the polynomial solution.
Set robust_refit to True to fit all the detected peaks with the given polynomial solution for a fit using maximal information, with the degree of polynomial = fit_deg.
Set both refine and robust_refit to False will return the list of arc lines are well fitted by the current solution within the tolerance limit provided.
- Parameters
fit_coeff (list) – List of polynomial fit fit_coefficients.
n_delta (int (default: None)) – The number of the lowest polynomial order to be adjusted
refine (boolean (default: True)) – Set to True to refine solution.
tolerance (float (default: 10.)) – Absolute difference between fit and model in the unit of nm.
method (string (default: 'Nelder-Mead')) – scipy.optimize.minimize method.
convergence (float (default: 1e-6)) – scipy.optimize.minimize tol.
min_frac (float (default: 0.5)) – Minimum fractionof peaks to be refitted.
robust_refit (boolean (default: True)) – Set to True to fit all the detected peaks with the given polynomial solution.
fit_deg (int (default: length of the input fit_coefficients)) – Order of polynomial fit with all the detected peaks.
- Returns
fit_coeff (list) – List of best fit polynomial fit_coefficient.
peak_match (numpy 1D array) – Matched peaks
atlas_match (numpy 1D array) – Corresponding atlas matches
residual (numpy 1D array) – The difference (NOT absolute) between the data and the best-fit solution.
peak_utilisation (float) – Fraction of detected peaks used for calibration [0-1].
- plot_arc(log_spectrum=False, savefig=False, fig_type='png', filename=None, json=False, renderer='default', display=True)[source]¶
Plots the 1D spectrum of the extracted arc
- Parameters
log_spectrum (boolean (default: False)) – Set to true to display the wavelength calibrated arc spectrum in logarithmic space.
savefig (boolean (default: False)) – Save an image if set to True. matplotlib uses the pyplot.savefig() while the plotly uses the pio.write_html() or fig.write_image(). The support format types should be provided in fig_type.
fig_type (string (default: 'png')) – Image type to be saved, choose from: jpg, png, svg, pdf and iframe. Delimiter is ‘+’.
filename (string (default: None)) – Provide a filename or full path. If the extension is not provided it is defaulted to png.
json (boolean (default: False)) – Set to True to return json strings if using plotly as the plotting library.
renderer (string (default: 'default')) – Indicate the Plotly renderer. Nothing gets displayed if json is set to True.
display (boolean (Default: False)) – Set to True to display disgnostic plot.
- Returns
Return json strings if using plotly as the plotting library and json
is True.
- plot_fit(fit_coeff, spectrum=None, tolerance=5.0, plot_atlas=True, log_spectrum=False, savefig=False, fig_type='png', filename=None, json=False, renderer='default', display=True)[source]¶
Plots of the wavelength calibrated arc spectrum, the residual and the pixel-to-wavelength solution.
- Parameters
fit_coeff (1D numpy array or list) – Best fit polynomail fit_coefficients
spectrum (1D numpy array (N)) – Array of length N pixels
tolerance (float (default: 5)) – Absolute difference between model and fitted wavelengths in unit of angstrom.
plot_atlas (boolean (default: True)) – Display all the relavent lines available in the atlas library.
log_spectrum (boolean (default: False)) – Display the arc in log-space if set to True.
savefig (boolean (default: False)) – Save an image if set to True. matplotlib uses the pyplot.savefig() while the plotly uses the pio.write_html() or fig.write_image(). The support format types should be provided in fig_type.
fig_type (string (default: 'png')) – Image type to be saved, choose from: jpg, png, svg, pdf and iframe. Delimiter is ‘+’.
filename (string (default: None)) – Provide a filename or full path. If the extension is not provided it is defaulted to png.
json (boolean (default: False)) – Set to True to return json strings if using plotly as the plotting library.
renderer (string (default: 'default')) – Indicate the Plotly renderer. Nothing gets displayed if json is set to True.
display (boolean (Default: False)) – Set to True to display disgnostic plot.
- Returns
Return json strings if using plotly as the plotting library and json
is True.
- plot_search_space(fit_coeff=None, top_n_candidate=3, weighted=True, savefig=False, fig_type='png', filename=None, json=False, renderer='default', display=True)[source]¶
Plots the peak/arc line pairs that are considered as potential match candidates.
If fit fit_coefficients are provided, the model solution will be overplotted.
- Parameters
fit_coeff (list (default: None)) – List of best polynomial fit_coefficients
top_n_candidate (int (default: 3)) – Top ranked lines to be fitted.
weighted ((default: True)) – Draw sample based on the distance from the matched known wavelength of the atlas.
savefig (boolean (default: False)) – Save an image if set to True. matplotlib uses the pyplot.savefig() while the plotly uses the pio.write_html() or fig.write_image(). The support format types should be provided in fig_type.
fig_type (string (default: 'png')) – Image type to be saved, choose from: jpg, png, svg, pdf and iframe. Delimiter is ‘+’.
filename ((default: None)) – The destination to save the image.
json ((default: False)) – Set to True to save the plotly figure as json string. Ignored if matplotlib is used.
renderer ((default: 'default')) – Set the rendered for the plotly display. Ignored if matplotlib is used.
display (boolean (Default: False)) – Set to True to display disgnostic plot.
- Returns
- Return type
json object if json is True.
- remove_atlas_lines_range(wavelength, tolerance=10)[source]¶
Remove arc lines within a certain wavelength range.
- Parameters
wavelength (float) – Wavelength to remove (Angstrom)
tolerance (float) – Tolerance around this wavelength where atlas lines will be removed
- set_calibrator_properties(num_pix=None, pixel_list=None, plotting_library=None, logger_name='Calibrator', log_level='info')[source]¶
Initialise the calibrator object.
- Parameters
num_pix (int) – Number of pixels in the spectral axis.
pixel_list (list) – pixel value of the of the spectrum, this is only needed if the spectrum spans multiple detector arrays.
plotting_library (string (default: 'matplotlib')) – Choose between matplotlib and plotly.
log_level (string (default: 'info')) – Choose {critical, error, warning, info, debug, notset}.
- set_hough_properties(num_slopes=None, xbins=None, ybins=None, min_wavelength=None, max_wavelength=None, range_tolerance=None, linearity_tolerance=None)[source]¶
- Parameters
num_slopes (int (default: 1000)) – Number of slopes to consider during Hough transform
xbins (int (default: 50)) – Number of bins for Hough accumulation
ybins (int (default: 50)) – Number of bins for Hough accumulation
min_wavelength (float (default: 3000)) – Minimum wavelength of the spectrum.
max_wavelength (float (default: 9000)) – Maximum wavelength of the spectrum.
range_tolerance (float (default: 500)) – Estimation of the error on the provided spectral range e.g. 3000-5000 with tolerance 500 will search for solutions that may satisfy 2500-5500
linearity_tolerance (float (default: 100)) – A toleranceold (Ansgtroms) which defines some padding around the range tolerance to allow for non-linearity. This should be the maximum expected excursion from linearity.
- set_known_pairs(pix=(), wave=())[source]¶
Provide manual pixel-wavelength pair(s), they will be appended to the list of pixel-wavelength pairs after the random sample being drawn from the RANSAC step, i.e. they are ALWAYS PRESENT in the fitting step. Use with caution because it can skew or bias the fit significantly, make sure the pixel value is accurate to at least 1/10 of a pixel. We do not recommend supplying more than a coupld of known pairs unless you are very confident with the solution and intend to skew with the known pairs.
This can be used for example for low intensity lines at the edge of the spectrum. Or saturated lines where peaks cannot be well positioned.
- Parameters
pix (numeric value, list or numpy 1D array (N) (default: ())) – Any pixel value, can be outside the detector chip and serve purely as anchor points.
wave (numeric value, list or numpy 1D array (N) (default: ())) – The matching wavelength for each of the pix.
- set_ransac_properties(sample_size=None, top_n_candidate=None, linear=None, filter_close=None, ransac_tolerance=None, candidate_weighted=None, hough_weight=None)[source]¶
Configure the Calibrator. This may require some manual twiddling before the calibrator can work efficiently. However, in theory, a large max_tries in fit() should provide a good solution in the expense of performance (minutes instead of seconds).
- Parameters
sample_size (int (default: 5)) – €£$
top_n_candidate (int (default: 5)) – Top ranked lines to be fitted.
linear (boolean (default: True)) – True to use the hough transformed gradient, otherwise, use the known polynomial.
filter_close (boolean (default: False)) – Remove the pairs that are out of bounds in the hough space.
ransac_tolerance (float (default: 1)) – The distance criteria (Angstroms) to be considered an inlier to a fit. This should be close to the size of the expected residuals on the final fit (e.g. 1A is typical)
candidate_weighted (boolean (default: True)) – Set to True to down-weight pairs that are far from the fit.
hough_weight (float or None (default: 1.0)) – Set to use the hough space to weigh the fit. The theoretical optimal weighting is unclear. The larger the value, the heavily it relies on the overdensity in the hough space for a good fit.